Kines Digest ( 体育读者文摘)Volume 6, Issue 1, 2021

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弘扬奥运文化,推进体文融合

亲爱的读者,

在迎接 2020 世界夏季奥运会即将开幕之际,在与战胜疫情最后时段,我们读者文摘新一期期刊又要与各位见面了。各国的体育健儿正在整装飞向东京,一展5年来最为闪耀的一刻,我们为他/她们加油! 祝这一来之不易的奥林匹克运动会圆满成功!

 

我们自去年以来,为大家谈论的是体医融合,体教融合,这一期我们为大家谈论的主题是奥运与文化,体育与文化的融合。 体育的概念我们不再加以详述,那什么是文化?美国人类学专家克罗伯在其<<文化概念的批判考察》一书中提出一个综合性定义:“文化是通过符号而获得,并通过符号而传播的行为模型。这种模型有显性的和隐形的;其符合也像人工制品一样体现了人类的成就;历史上形成和选择的传统思想,特别是其所代表的价值观念是文化的核心。“文化的结构有物质文化,制度文化和精神文化三个层次所组成。它们相对独立,又相互依存和相互制约,构成一个有机联系的文化整体。 文化从广义上讲指一个国家或民族的历史,地理,风土人情,传统习俗,生活方式,文学艺术,行为规范,思维方式,价值观念等。

 

奥林匹克运动会(奥运会)的核心和象征就是体育与文化相结合。它是怎么与文化相结合的呢?古代的奥林匹克运会以祭神为主,还包括有形体,圣火,演讲,雕塑等文化艺术活动,内容丰富, 形式多样,体育竞技仅作为其中一项内容。 现代奥林匹克运动会在创始之际,就坚持“体育与文化教育相结合“的理念,坚决反对把运动会看作是纯粹的体育竞技活动。从1906年开始倡议在每届奥运会期间,同时举行文化内容的艺术比赛会。从1912年到1948年,历届的奥运会都进行了雕塑,建筑,绘画,诗歌,音乐等方面的艺术比赛。奥运会的主办国都充分利用奥林匹克艺术节展示本国的文化,它既是对主办国文化的展示,也是世界性的艺术大交流。由于越来越多的有识人士认识到文化对体育健康发展的重要性,要是过多地关注竞技比赛, 忽视加强体育与文化相结合,就有可能使体育活动出现偏差,甚至走入歧途。 所以奥运会也逐渐成为一场体育与文化相结合的盛会。奥运会有它的以其一系列独特的文化艺术形式(是):会旗,火炬,会标,歌曲,奖牌和吉祥物等等。 尤其是它的标志显示了现代文化的象征:蓝,黄,黑,绿,红相互套接的五环,它表示着五大洲团结和全世界运动员相聚一堂,它已经成为世界和平,民族团结的象征。 它已经不是一般意义上的体育活动,它把体育与文化融为一体。并上升为一种奥运精神。为人们在体育运动中努力加以实践和学习。奥运委员会在2020年还开通了奥林匹克频道,它的四大使命是,成为奥林匹克运动的家园;沟通和联结观众和网民; 宣传奥林匹克精神; 通过体育来教育人们。 所以,体育在社会活动中发挥的地位和作用,体育对社会生产的推动力,体育对人们生活方式的影响力,都因为奥林匹克运动精神的存在和发展而不断强化。

 

大到奥运的文化象征,小到学校的体育运动,只要重视和用心去做都会得到体育与文化相结合的效果。 我儿子从小生长在美国,从学前班开始,他的学业生涯就伴随着与体育运动一起成长。从学前班一直到高中毕业,学校提倡每个学生都必须参加一项体育项目。不论你的水平如何,都有平等的机会参加比赛。 基本是每一到两周都有一场比赛。 从比赛中学习和成长。 与文化相结合具体表现在,团队有自己的名称,队旗,服装,标志和吉祥物。而最关键的因为学校和家长都担心学生参加了过多的体育运动会影响成绩。所以,学校的体育教练们都建立自己的一套独特的训练和竞赛的管理方法。 我记得儿子成了学校高中橄榄球队的主力队员后,每天需要参加4个小时的训练。每天上学前一小时,一天学习结束后三小时。功课都在晚上7点以后才能去完成。 他是既要保持好成绩,又要为球队得分。学校的教练和班主任一般都配合的很好,他们的做法是。第一,让每个球员树立集体感和自信心,在每周的比赛前一日,要求每个队员穿球衣上学。以此让球队不仅能受到学生和老师们的尊敬,而且也让球员们感到非常的自豪。第二,要求每个队员完成每周一次的学科的测验,分数一定要达到优良,否则就取消参赛资格。因为每个队员都想参加比赛,所以都会考出好成绩。若是出现考的不好的不能参赛的队员,教练就会选出一位成绩优秀的队员一对一的帮助他们,直到成绩上去。这种方法能使学生的学习和体育运动两不误。让体育与文化融为一体。 学校还提倡每年评出的优秀生的标准必须是学习和体育双优的学生,还外加要为学校和社区做义务劳动有贡献的学生。总之,我的体会是每次观看一次比赛,都会看到学校和社区的体育与文化是那么完美的结合。让你感受到这两者之间是不能分割。 中国目前已开始将体育课与艺术课作为学生成绩考核的一部分,以及今年全国高校入学考试时选择了以体育为主题的写作考题,都显示了国家对加强体育与文化教育的重视程度。体育与文化的结合将随着奥运精神,体育精神的传播和努力地实践,会发展的越来越好。

 

为支持东京奥运,我们在本期里专门设立了奥运专栏,科研文章有来自国外的和国内的。 还增加了最新的运动训练与健康等方面的科研文摘。我们都知道要达到体育与文化真正的融合不是一朝一夕能做到和做好的。但是只要持之以恒的努力,一定能结出硕果。 小到一个国家,大到五湖四海,让我们共同弘扬奥运的精神。为体育与文化的融合,为世界和平,做出我们应有的贡献。
 

感谢您的关注和订阅,请看以下具体目录.
 
—来自总编的序言
 

目录 Contents)

 

一.   世界体育最新科研动向

06.   首份《全球残疾人士身体活动和久坐行为指南》

07.   COVID-19广泛流行对美国大学生身体活动和心理健康的影响

08.   体育教育中的合作学习研究:对近五年研究的系统评价

09a. 体育教学的核心规范:教师教育的建议

09b. 职前体育教师健康相关健康常识的研究

10.   临界速度与衰老: 洞察世界大师锦标赛

 

二.   运动训练

11.  年轻游泳选手内部和外部稳定性的数据建模:纵向聚类分析

12.  运动员倦怠的生理心理调查

13.  耐力训练的男性在不同剂量的常压低氧饮食中补充硝酸盐对高强度间歇跑步表现的影

14.  胶原肽对抗阻训练男性离心运动后恢复的影响一项先导性研究

15男性中长跑运动员16:8限时饮食8周的效果

16.  英超足球学院男子足球运动员的能量需求

17.  使用新型冷却材料加速棒球投手肌肉恢复的研究

18.  自行车反复冲刺后恢复的时间过程

19.  板球快速投球技术与腰椎应力损伤

20.  年轻男性耐力运动员近端主动脉顺应性的磁共振成像研究

 

三.  体质研究

21.  911岁儿童的生活方式行为与体内脂肪百分比有关

22.  儿科研究的最佳实践模式 科学健身及运动医学

23.  550名休闲跑步者跑步损伤位置的多因素影响研究

 

四.  体质研究

24.  在艰苦的军事训练中补充能量会增加骨的形成

25.  年轻芬兰人心血管风险4年研究的中年人主要生活变化与基于计步器的身体活动之间的关系 

26.  当前的心脏康复计划是否已优化以改善患者的心肺适应性? 一项荟萃分析

27.  两个评估期内基于加速度计的久坐行为和身体活动的测量反应性

28.  健康男性和女性自行车运动时脂肪氧化率峰值的决定因素

29.  基于运动的方程式估计心肺适能的准确性

30.  推断身体活动和看电视对死亡率影响的研究

31.  饮食中的硝酸盐和一氧化氮代谢:口腔、血液、骨骼肌和运动表现

32.  每日步数和餐后脂肪代谢的关系研究

 

五. 传统体育 (中国)

33.  传播与变迁:太极拳在英国的发展历程与传播动力

34.  健身气功八段锦联合固本利肺汤治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病 稳定期患者对肺功能的影响

 

六. 体育产业与社会体育

35.  有组织的体育运动中对心理健康素养和抗挫能力的干预研究

36.  运动专长的抑制性控制及其与运动成绩的关系

37a.像女性一样的教练:从飞行员教练教育计划中学到的东西

37b.面向未来主管,经理和非技术人员的体育分析教育 

38.  运动员的心理需求与教练员的人际行为:人际间内在潜在特征分析

39a.足球、CTE和痴呆症的文化表征

39b.向前迈进一步,向后退两则推文:探索Twitter上文化上的反弹和曲棍球的男子气概

40.  促进作为一种爱的行为:关于在支持社区学者的过程中,促进者的教学法如何随时间变化的自我研究

41a.“德国退出世界杯”:针对危机沟通对Facebook影响的混合方法研究

41b. 所有适合印刷的新闻? 媒体如何构筑职业运动员慈善事业

 

老年,儿童与妇女的运动与健康

42.   阅读中发现:基于儿童运动的书籍中的性别刻板印象

43.   体育活动与月经周期:对于女性经历的混合方法研究

44.   孕妇的孕期身体活动及其对母亲和新生儿的影响:一项系统评价

45.   测量患有轻度认知障碍或轻度痴呆的人的身体活动水平

46a. 抗阻训练强度对老年妇女血压的影响

46b. 太极拳预防老年人跌倒:证据的批判性分析

47.   前列腺癌男性患者抗阻运动剂量:系统综述,荟萃分析和荟萃回归

 

.   学校体育

48a. 中学体育教师采用补充在线教学系统(iPE)的相关因素

48b. 重新认识教师身份:教师在教学情境中的动态复杂性

49.   跨两种文化的教学风格问卷调查表的高阶因子和量测等价

 

.  奥运专题(体育与文化融合)

 50.  奥运会的 可持续性评估

 51.  2020年东京奥运会开幕式的COVID-19风险评估

 52a.2018年平昌冬季奥运会上的阿里郎(Arirang)冰舞:音乐、身份和体育的交汇

 52b.法国奥运会运动员的表现因素与策略

 53.  备战第32届夏季奥运会视域下基于Fanger模型的运动中 热环境对人体热感觉及能消耗的影响研究

 54.  2020东京奥运会项目变动的特征、影响与启示

 

Promote the Olympic culture, Advance the integration of sports and culture
 
Dear readers,
 

On the welcome occasion of the opening of the 2020 World Summer Olympic Games, and in the final period of fighting the epidemic, Kines Digest’s new issue has been published. The athletes all over the world are in their outfits and on the way to Tokyo.  To show the best performances and results in five years. We cheer for them! We wish the Olympics and the athletes a full success!

 

Since last year, we have introduced the theme of the integration of sports and medicine, and the integration of sports and education. In this issue, our main theme for you is the Olympic Games culture, and how we can do better on the integration of sports and culture. The concept of sports, we have known it well. What is the definition of culture? American anthropologist Krober proposed a comprehensive definition in his book《Cultural Theme Park of Cultural Concepts》: “Culture is a behavioral model obtained through symbols and spread through symbols. This model is visible and invisible; its conformity is also like a man-made product that expresses the achievements of human beings; Traditional thoughts formed and selected in history, the values they represent are the core of culture. The culture structure consists of three levels: material culture, institutional culture and spiritual culture. They are relatively independent and interdependent and restrict each other. Culture broadly refers to the history of a country or nation, Geography, native customs, traditional habits and customs, literature and art, behavior, way of thinking, values, etc.

 

The core and symbol of the Olympic Games (Olympics) is the combination of sports and culture. How is the combination of sports and culture? Ancient Olympics were mainly worshiped to gods, and also included cultural and artistic activities such as tangible bodies, torches, speeches, sculptures, etc.  The activities are rich in content and diverse in forms, sports competition is only one of the contents. Modern Olympics adhered to the cultural concept of “combination of sports and culture education” when they were founded, and resolutely opposed the sports event as a pure competition. Since 1906, it has been proposed to hold cultural content art competitions at the same time during each Olympics. From 1912 to 1948, the previous Olympics held art competitions in sculpture, architecture, painting, poetry and music. The host Countries of the Olympics make full use of art festivals to display domestic culture, which is not only a display of national culture, but also a world-wide artistic exchange. More and more people of insight recognize the importance of culture to the healthy development of sports. If too much attention is paid to competition, and neglect cultural education, it may lead to deviations in sports and even go astray. So, the Olympics is also about to hold a grand event combining sports and culture. The Olympics has its own unique cultural and artistic forms: flags, torches, logos, songs, medals and mascots, etc. In particular, its logo shows the symbol of modern culture: the blue, yellow, black, green, and red five different colored rings socketed with each other. It traps the unity of the five continents. It is not only a general sports event, but has become a symbol of world peace and national unity. It is integrating sports and culture and elevated to an Olympic spirit for people to practice and learn in sports.  In 2020, the Olympics opened a sports channel. It has four major missions: to become a home for the Olympics; to communicate and connect audiences and netizens; to promote the Olympics spirit; and to educate people through sports. Therefore, sports play a social status and role in social activities. The driving force of sports on social production and the influence of sports on people are all due to the existence and development of Olympic spirit.

 

Cultural sports as large as the Olympics, and as smaller as the school sports. As long as they start to pay attention to the effect of combining sports and culture. My son grew up in the United States, and his academic career has been accompanied by sports since his preschool. From preschool to high school, students at the school must participate in one kind of sport. Learn and compete from the game. The specific expression combined with culture, the team has its own name, team flag, costume, logo and mascot. The most critical question is school and parents are worried about students participating too long in excessive sports activities. Therefore, the school’s sports coaches have established their own unique training and competition management methods. I remember my son after becoming the varsity team player of football in his high school, he needed to participate in 4 hours of training every day. One hour before school started, three hours after school time. Homework can only be completed after 7pm. He needs to keep a good score in his academic study as well as for the football team. School coaches and head teachers generally cooperate well. What they did was first, let every player wear a jersey to go school before the weekly game. It makes players collect respect and build self-confidence.  The second requirement is that the team members complete the examination once a week. They must score a B above, otherwise they can’t participate in the game. So almost every player could receive a good grade. If someone gets a below B, they will get a one-on-one helper until their grade up to a B.  The school system combined sports and culture. They set up a standard for evaluating outstanding students with both excellence in academic and sports, plus contributing to the school and the community. In short, I have seen the perfect integration of sports and culture in each event. It makes you think that there is no separation between them. China has now begun to practice physical education and art test scores as a student requirement in school. The year of 2021 national college entrance examination also selected sports themes as essays. They all show that China starts to enhance sports and cultural education. The integration will develop better and better with the Olympic spirit and the hard work.
 

In order to support the Olympics in Tokyo, we have set up Olympics content with scientific research articles from abroad and domestically. The articles also added the latest scientific research abstracts on sports training and health. As we all know, achieving sports and culture is not easy work. As small as a country, as large as the five continents all around the world, let us carry forward the spirit of the Olympics together, develop the integration of world sports and culture, promote world peace to make our best contribution.

 

–Preface from the editor-in-chief

 

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